Transcript from: "Patterns of Delinquency"
One of a series by Joy Reese Shaw
Herald Staff Writer
"CURE FOR RUNAWAY DELINQUENTS---"JUST FEED THEM SOUZA SOUP"
Excerpt Quoted from "Patterns of Delinquency" by Joy Reese Shaw: Archival Records
St Pete Times:
Here are the methods that Dr. Luis Souza used to evaluate an inmate.
Basically, his theory is that in many instances the blood does not transport sufficient oxygen to the blood cells and behavioral disorders developed. Dr.
Luis Souza gives to boys whose behavior indicates they need help, a neurological examination, laboratory studies and electro-encephalograph. He
establishes normal oxygen capacity transmission at 9.5. When he finds it less than 7.5 he puts the youth under treatment. Souza's "Soup" was a
specially prepared mixture of concentrated protein prepared from red bone marrow. Each child receives eight ounces a day. Of 2,200 boys tested 1,800
showed the problem and 70% improved with treatment. The critical age is 11-21 and diet control management. Dr Luis Souza worked in Vienna with
German Psychiatrist Dr.Sigfried Krunner....who pioneered in Ultra Sonic Sound Therapy and in the research of "light" protein associated with mental
impairment due to low gasometric capacity of the hemoglobin.
Excited about the finding Dr. Luis Souza has continued research in the same field, concentrating on the juvenile offender. Basically, his theory is that
in many instances the blood does not transport sufficient oxygen to the blood cells and behavioral disorders developed.
When kids do not get enough protein, the hemoglobin falls down and the brain cells do not receive enough oxygen, he pointed out.
"Many children do not eat properly," he stated.
His answer: "Souza's Soup"..... a specially prepared mixture of concentrated protein prepared from red bone marrow. Each child under treatment
receives eight ounces a day.
Of 2,200 boys tested, he said, 1,800 showed the problem.....and 70 percent improved with treatment.
"The critical age is 11-21 and diet control management in correctional institutions."
End Joy Reese Shaw document
COMMENTS: R. Straley
I talked to Ellen at the Federal Food & Drug Administration on 2/17/2010. She verified that a homemade remedy by a doctor, employed by the state of
Florida, that doctor would not have been allowed to pass out any self made drug in any form, that it would have been illegal then and is illegal today.
She stated that not even a drug approved for testing would have been used on juveniles in an institutional setting.
Basically, Dr. Souza, had a theory that diet may cause the blood to transport insufficient oxygen to the blood cells causing behavioral disorders and
there by creating juvenile delinquency. This is not a medical fact, this is pure speculation by a physician not qualified to test such a theory on human
subjects. This was gross negligence on the part of the Officials of the Institution and the State of Florida. As stated in the article in his own words, up to
1800 (or more) boys were forced to ingest an unknown, unapproved and untested drug while at the school. Note that Dr. Sigfried Krunner worked in
the "research" of light protein and Dr. Luis Souza continued his "research" in the same field. The boys may as well have been lab animals. "Research"
is a process done in the lab and a "theory" does not warrant human testing.
Future investigation to follow....would appreciate any "whitehouseboys" that were subjected to treatments or tests as described below by Dr. Souza.
Note: sample picture of a EEG Recording Cap above is depiction only, Description of any medical equipment used would be helpful....Thanks.... Robert
(a) Was this drug (Souza Soup) approved or tested by the Food & Drug Administration?
(b) Was this drug sanctioned by any State or Government agency?
(c) Was there any type of investigation into the use of this drug by the FSB officials?
Below pictures are from the "Yellow Jacket" courtesy of Roger Kiser
DESCRIPTIONS OF MEDICAL TOOLS, TESTING AND PROCEDURES FROM VARIOUS WEB SITES:
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Oxygen Saturation in Arterial Blood.
Am J Med Technol. 1975 Oct;41(10):360-3.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Link has more content, this is excerpt)
Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical
contexts, EEG refers to the recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity over a short period of time, usually 20–40 minutes, as recorded from
multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. In neurology, the main diagnostic application of EEG is in the case of epilepsy, as epileptic activity can create
clear abnormalities on a standard EEG study. A secondary clinical use of EEG is in the diagnosis of coma, encephalopathies, and brain death. EEG
used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of
anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT.
Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials (EP), which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a
stimulus of some sort (visual, somatosensory, or auditory). Event-related potentials refer to averaged EEG responses that are time-locked to more
complex processing of stimuli; this technique is used in cognitive science, cognitive psychology, and psychophysiological research.
ULTRASOUND (Link has more content, this is excerpt)
Guidelines for the Safe Use of Ultrasound, Safety Information Resources
American Physical Therapy Association
An ultrasound machine consists of a console that is plugged into an AC adapter, in which a coaxial cable provides electrical current to a handheld
transducer with an applicator head (which emits the ultrasound waves). Your doctor would rub a special gel on the skin of your affected area, then
program the device to emit sound waves at a certain frequency from 0.8 to 3 megahertz (depending on your condition). He would move it over your
skin in small circular motions for 5 to 10 minutes a session.
Parts of Your Body to Avoid
You should not use ultrasound over the skin where your organs or mucus membranes are located, which include the following; heart, lungs, kidneys,
liver, bowels, vagina, ovaries, testes, rectum, brain, spinal cord, nose, eyes and mouth. It is also important that pregnant women do not expose their
abdomen or lower back region to ultrasound waves as it may harm the fetus.
Ultrasound therapy should not be used if you have certain medical conditions or illnesses, which include the following: severe arterial insufficiency,
cardiac disease, deep vein thrombosis, spina bifida, bone infections and bleeding disorders. Also, ultrasound should not be used on growth plates of
children, as it may affect their potential growth. People with metal implants (e.g., pacemakers) should not use ultrasound in that area of the body.
According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), sound waves from ultrasound therapy should not come into contact with any organs of your
body. These highly sensitive organs include the following: heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, stomach, spleen, bowels, eyes, ears, ovaries, testicles, brain
and spinal cord. Also, the sound waves should not come in contact over mucous membrane areas of the body, which include the mouth, nose, rectum
and vagina. Further, ultrasound should not be used over areas of the body that have a metal implant embedded (e.g. pacemaker) as well as over any
active growth plates (epiphyseal regions) in children.
Ultrasound therapy should not be used on patients who have certain diseases, illnesses and/or conditions. The following are some examples;
hemophilia (bleeding disorder), spina bifida, tissues or bones that have active infection (e.g. opens sores), cancerous or pre-cancerous cells, de-
sensitized areas of the skin (diabetic neuropathy), untreated osteomyelitis (bone infection), deep vein thrombosis and cardiac disease. Also, it is very
important that ultrasound sound waves do not go over the abdomen and lower back (lumbar) region of pregnant women or potentially pregnant women.
(Link has more content, this is excerpt)
Comparison of three methods for determining oxygen saturation in arterial blood.
Thomas VE, Anema RJ, McNamara JJ.
Am J Med Technol. 1975 Oct;41(10):360-3.
Oxygen saturation was determined by direct measurement with the Van Slyke method, an oximeter, and by indirect measurement with a pO2 electrode
with conversion of oxygen tension to oxygen saturation. All three methods correlated well when the oxygen saturation was above 94 per cent. Below
this value both the oximeter measurement and the saturation value calculated from the oxygen tension significantly overestimated the oxygen
saturation as determined by the Van Slyke method. It appears from our data that when the saturation is less than 94 per cent, the absolute values for
O2 saturation continue to be accurately determined with a Van Slyke, but the other two methods in this range are, at best, only useful in detecting
gross changes in oxygen saturation.
How much oxygen is in the blood? The Differences Between PaO2, SaO2 and Oxygen Content.
In the field of blood gas interpretation, confusion about PaO2, SaO2 and oxygen content is second only to confusion about mixed acid-base
http://www.lakesidepress.com/pulmonary/ABG/PO2.htm (Excert Below)
Arterial PO2 (little 'a')gives us valuable information about adequacy of gas exchange within the lungs, when (and only when) it is subtracted from the
calculated alveolar PO2 (big A). We use the Alveolar Gas Equation to calculate PAO2. The difference between measured PaO2 and calculated PAO2 is
called the Alveolar-arterial PO2 difference or 'A-a Gradient' for short. The A-a gradient answers the important question: Are the lungs transferring
oxygen properly from the atmosphere to the pulmonary circulation? If the A-a gradient is elevated, the answer is NO. If the A-a gradient is normal is
YES. (The A-a gradient is discussed in detail in Chapter 4).
There is a second, equally important question concerning oxygen and gas exchange, which is the subject of this section:
How much oxygen is in the blood, and is it adequate for the patient?
The answer here must obviously be based on some oxygen value, but which one? After all, blood gases give us three different oxygen values.
Robert W. Straley
The following issue will now be researched by:
Updates on this issue will be reported by date and
placed on the front page as they happen.
Two articles on medical testing and Dr. Souza creating his own "Medical Potion" by Joy Reese Shaw and Reporter Eric Kopp Okeechobee News
Were juvenile inmates used as guinea pigs?
Florida School for Boys residents claim ‘doctor’ used them for medical
By Eric Kopp Okeechobee News
Not only were boys incarcerated at the Florida School for Boys (FSB) beaten and sexually assaulted, some were
used as guinea pigs for doctors, according to claims made by former FSB students.
According to men who were in the reform school at Marianna, a resident psychiatrist there, Dr. Luis Souza, would
give the boys a concoction to drink in order to modify their behavior.
In another instance, boys in Madison Cottage were given “cookies and milk” on Friday nights if they had behaved
themselves during the week. The milk, recalls one man, had a strange taste and consistency.
Over 300 men have come forward to talk about the abuse they endured at Marianna in the 1940s, ’50s and ’60s;
and, at the Okeechobee reform school in the 1960s.
To this day no one knows what was in the drink referred to as “Souza’s Soup” by the boys. But one man is now
suffering physical ailments that doctors not only can’t identify, they can’t tell him what’s causing them.
“I’m having skin problems, I have spots that bleed and I have sores in my nose,” said Jimmy Turner, who was sent to
the reform school in 1964 when he was 14 years old. “I was given the soup every other week I was in there.”
Mr. Turner, who spent 10 months in the Marianna school, can’t count the number of doctors he’s seen about his
ailments, but none have been able to help him.
“I’m on 12 different medicines a day,” said the Vietnam veteran.
One doctor, he continued, believed the skin problems were the result of his exposure to Agent Orange while serving
with the U.S. Navy on the Cambodia River. However, tests done at a nearby Veteran’s Administration Hospital
determined that Agent Orange was not the cause.
Dr. Souza reportedly believed that behavioral disorders developed when the blood did not carry a sufficient amount
of oxygen to blood cells. His ‘soup’ was a mixture of concentrated protein made from red bone marrow, stated an
article by Joy Reese Shaw in the St. Petersburg Times.
“He (Souza) believed the potion would cure juvenile delinquency in boys. A lot were given this when sent to isolation
after beatings—when they were healing,” said Robert Straley, who was in the Marianna school in 1963 and worked
as a hospital boy. “The boys who were given soup said they couldn’t remember what happened—like they were in a
When asked, Mr. Turner said he also didn’t know what happened to him after he drank the bitter tasting potion. He
does recall going into a small room with Dr. Souza, who would have him drink about 6- to 8-ounces of the liquid and
would then attach electrodes to his head.
And, as indicated by Mr. Straley, Mr. Turner was first sent to see Dr. Souza when he was healing from a beating
given him when he was “sent down” to The White House.
“I had a place on the back of my head that was draining—that was from a beating by (Troy) Tidwell,” recalled Mr.
Turner, who is now on disability.
Mr. Tidwell, a one-armed man who worked at the school, has been blamed for administering agonizing beatings by
several men who were “sent down” while at the school. In 2010 a circuit court judge in Tallahassee dismissed a
class action lawsuit filed against Mr. Tidwell by some 300 men who were in the Marianna and Okeechobee schools
because the statute of limitations had expired.
While Mr. Straley had no first-hand knowledge of Souza’s Soup, he said it didn’t take him long to learn who Mr.
“I got a beating my first night there (in Marianna),” said Mr. Straley, who was 13 at the time and weighed just 100
pounds. “Tidwell woke me up in the middle of the night and accused me of smoking. In other words, they just
needed some late night entertainment.”
Mr. Turner, who still lives in Marianna, said he was sent to the school for truancy and for fighting.
“He (Souza) would have me lie down on a bed and I believe the soup made me go to sleep,” he said, in a recent
telephone interview. “I don’t remember if it made me feel different. It was supposed to help me—to keep from being
so mean and getting into trouble and stuff. But, it didn’t help me.”
As for Bryant Middleton, he still wonders where an alleged doctor got the cookies and milk that he gave to boys in
Madison Cottage. During his incarceration at Marianna, the retired U.S. Army captain was in Madison Cottage and
remembers being given the suspicious treat.
Capt. Middleton said he and the other boys in his cottage were given the Friday night ‘treats’ by Dr. Robert Curry,
who was doing a behavioral study on the boys. If a boy had received an infraction during the week, he did not get
the treat but, instead, had to set at the same table and watch the other boys so Dr. Curry could watch his reactions.
He’s also become very curious on just where Dr. Curry, a purported psychologist, got the milk and cookies.
“Every time I was fortunate enough to get cookies and milk, I know it had a strange taste or texture that was different
from normal milk,” recalled Capt. Middleton. “I was the pantry boy and totally accountable for dry goods and
refrigerated items, and I never gave out any bottles of milk. I had the only set of keys. I went to the kitchen at 4:30 a.
m. and I never issued it.”
After having their cookies and milk, Capt. Middleton said the boys were told to take showers then were sent to bed.
Looking back, he thinks the treats were given to the boys to induce sleep. However, he’s not sure of that.
One thing he is sure of, Dr. Curry was not a doctor. The man, he continued, did not have a medical degree and was
of questionable character.
“He went to a junior college and got an associates degree in social work, but he deceived the state into believing he
was a board certified psychologist,” said Capt. Middleton. “He would come down to the showers and watch the boys.
He would call us out of the showers, when we were nude, and look at us. He also liked to run his fingers through our
hair, touch us on our shoulders and say suggestive things.”
According to Capt. Middleton, Souza not only doled out his infamous soup but would also give boys antipsychotic
medication and would conduct shock therapy on boys in Pearce Cottage. The medications, he continued, changed
the behavioral actions and outbursts the boys were having.
“You could hear the blood curdling screams coming out of that place at night,” recalled Capt. Middleton.
He said Dr. Souza started his experiments when he returned from Germany.
When asked if Souza’s Soup was ever given to the boys housed at the FSB in Okeechobee, Capt. Middleton said
he didn’t know but it seemed plausible.
“I don’t know if it was done in Okeechobee,” said Mr. Straley, “but they sent Tidwell and (Frank) Zych to
Okeechobee to ‘straighten the mess out.’ I guess they straightened them out. Zych stayed, but Tidwell returned to
Mr. Zych, who has since died, later became the superintendent at the Okeechobee school.
Mr. Turner said he will soon be leaving Florida to see even more doctors in hopes of finding something that will
relieve his suffering. If the doctors only knew what was in that yellowish drink besides dark flakes, he thought out
“I just wish they could trace back to see what that rascal was putting in that soup,” he said.